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health deviation requisites result from illness, injurty, disease or treatment

Client a person who engages the advice or services of another person who is qualified to provide this service, in nursing the recipient of nursing care, includes individuals, families, groups, and communities Conceptual framework a group of related concepts Critical theory describes theories that help elucidate how social structures affect a wide variety of human experiences from art to social practices, in nursing critical theory research helps explain how these structures such as race, gender, sexual orientation and economic class affect client experiences and health outcomes. Environment all of the conditions , circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development of an organism or person, in nursing the internal and external surroundings that affect the client, this includes people in the physical environment, such as families, friends, and significant others Grand Theories articulage a broad range of the significant relationships among the concepts of a discipline, only occassionally direct nursing research Health the degree of wellness or well-being that the client experiences Metaparadigm originates from the Greek meta, meaning with, and paradigm meaning pattern based on four theoretical concepts of nursing: person, environment, health, and nursing Midlevel theories focus on exploration of concepts such as pain, self-esteem, learning and hardiness, nursing research is often informed by midlevel theories that focus on the exploration of concepts such as pain, self-esteem, learning and hardiness. Nursing the attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care on behalf of, or in conjunction with, the client Paradigm a pattern of shared understandings and assumptions about reality and the world, inxcludes our notions of reality that are largely unconscious or taken for granted Philosophy an early effort to define phenomena that serves as the basis for later theoretical formulations Practice discipline field of study in which the central focus is performance of professional role (nursing, teaching, management, making music), term not common until the end of the 20th century, Theory a system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon (e.g. theory of gravity) What is used to describe, predict and control phenomena? theory Who wrote the first book on home care and community health and what was the name? Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not Disciplines without a strong theory and research base were referred to? soft, a negative comparision with the hard sciences When do we become aware of paradigms? when realities clash What was the primary use of nursing theory? to establish the profession’s place in the university What does nursing research identify? the philosophical assumptions or conceptual frameworks from which it proceeds because all thinking, writing, and speaking is based on previous assumptions about people and the world. What type of research can theory be used? qualitative research, theory can be used to help select the phenomenon, frame the philosophical underpinnings of the study, and guide date analysis and interpretation. Qualitative research in nursing and social sciences can be grounded in what theories? theories from philosophy or the social sciences What are the five environmental factors that Nightingale described? 1. pure or fresh air 2. pure water 3. efficient drainage, 4. cleanliness and 5. light, especially direct sunlight (deficiencies in these five factors produced lack of health or illness When did Peplau introduce her interpersonal concepts? 1952 What is Peplau’s theory? the existence of a therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the client, nurses enter into a personal relationship with an individual when a need is present What are the four phases of Peplau’s theory? orientation, identification, exploitation, resolution What is orientation? the client seeks help and the nurse assists the client to understand the problem and the extent of the need for help What is identification? the client assumes as posture of dependence, interdependence, or independence in relation to the nurse, the nurse’s focus is to assure the person that the nurse understands the interpersonal meaning of the client’s situation What is exploitation? the client derives full value from what the nurse offers through the relationship, the client uses available services based on self-interest and needs, power shifts from the nurse to the client What is resolution? this is the final phase, old need and goals are put aside and new ones adopted, once older needs are resolved, newer and more mature ones emerge How do nurses fulfill their clients needs? assume many roles, stranger, teacher, resource person, surrogate, leader and counselor When is Peplau’s model used by clinicians? when working with individuals who have psychological problems When year was Virginia Henderson’s definition of unique function of nursing? 1966 What did Virginia Henderson’s function of nursing help to emerge? it was a major stepping stone in the emergence of nursing as a discipline separate from medicine What do Virginia Henderson and Florence Nightingale have in common? the both describe nursing in relation to the client and the clients environment. What is different in how Virginia Henderson and Florence Nightingale view nursing? Henderson sees the nurse as concerned with both healthy and ill individuals, acknowledges that nurses interact with clients even when recover may not be feasible, and mention the teaching and advocacy roles of the nurse. What is well recognized and emphisized from Virginia Henderson? the importance of nursing’s independence from and interdependence with other health care disciplines is well recognized When did Martha Rogers present her theory? 1970 What is Martha Rogers theory? unitary human beings-contains complex conceptualizations related to multiple scientific disciplines, views the person as an irreducible whole, the whold being greater than the sum of its parts, humans are dynamic energy fields in continuous eschange with environmental fields, both of which are infinite. The human field image perspective surpasses that of the physical body. Both human and environmental fields are characterized by pattern, a universe of open systems, and four dimensionality. According to Rogers, unitary man: is irreducible, four-dimensional energy field identified by pattern, manifest characteristics different from the sum of the parts, interacts continuously and creatively with the environment, behaves as a totality, as a sentient being, participates creatively in change How does a nurse apply Roger’s theory in practice? focus on persons wholeness, seek to promote symphonic interaction between the two energy fields (human and environment) to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the person, coordinate the human field with the rhythmicities of the environmental field and direct and redirect patterns of interaction between the two energy fields to promote maximum health potential What is the nurse’s use of noncontact therapeutic touch based on? the concept of human energy fields When was Dorothea Orem’s theory published? 1971 What are the three related concepts or Orem’s theory? self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing systems What is the self-care theory based on? self-care, self-care agency, self-care requisites, and therapeutic self-care demand What does self-care refer to? activities an individual performs independently throughout life to promote and maintain personal well being What does self-care agency refer to? the individuals ability to perform self-care activities. it consists of two agents (an individual who perform self-care independently) and a dependent care agent( a person other than the individual who provides the care What are self-care requisites? also called self-care needs, are measures or action taken to provide self-care. What are the three categories of self-care requisites 1. universal requisites are common to all people, include maintaining intake and elimination of air, water, food, balancing rest, solitude, social interaction, preventing hazards to life and well being, promoting normal human functioning.
2. developmental requisites result from maturation, or associated with conditions and events, such as adjusting to a change in body image or the loss of a spouse
3. health deviation requisites result from illness, injurty, disease or treatment, include actions such as seeking health care assistance, carrying out prescribed therapies, learning to live with the effects of illness or treatment What does therapeutic self-care demand refer to? refers to all self-care activites require to meet exitsing self-care requisites or actions to maintain health and well being When does self-care deficit occur? when self-care agency is not adequat5e to meet the known self-care demand. What are the three types of nursing systems Orem identifies? 1. Wholly compensatory sysems required for individuals who are unable to control and monitor their environment and process information
2. Partly compensatory systems designed for individuals who are unable to perform some, but not all, self-care activities

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