1. Identify the agent, host, and environment in this case study, and describe how they interacted to bring about the occurrence of disease.
2. Is the mold contamination in Ms. Zee’s room a point-source pollutant or a non–point-source pollutant?
3. What can Nurse John do to learn more about indoor air quality (IAQ) and about what to do in case of mold?
4. What are some possible interventions that Nurse John could apply to address the mold contamination in Ms. Zee’s room?
CASE # 4: ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Hilary S. is a nurse health inspector at the county health department. Nurse Hilary visits businesses in the community that have the potential to spread infectious diseases to large and/or vulnerable populations. Today, Nurse Hilary will visit the We Love Kids daycare center and a nearby seafood restaurant.
The daycare center cares for children ages 1 month to 6 years. To enroll a child in daycare, parents must show proof that the child is up-to-date on all age-appropriate immunizations or must show proof of medical or religious exemption. Nurse Hilary finds the records in the office area and confirms that all children have received the necessary immunizations. She observes that employees use gloves when changing diapers, cleaning a baby’s spit-up, and tending to a scratched knee from a playground accident. Employees also wash their hands after each of these events, before and after giving a baby his bottle, and before entering the 1- to 6-month-old room after leaving the 2- to 3-year-old room. Nurse Hilary also notices a flyer posted in the employee break room that informs staff of the upcoming mandatory in-service that will be held to discuss the importance of checking bottles, especially those that contain breast milk, for the correct name before feeding a child.
The seafood restaurant is a chain restaurant that has become less popular over the past couple of years. Many customers have complained about the quality of the food. Recently, 20 cases of severe diarrhea were reported to the health department by people who had just eaten at the restaurant. Nurse Hilary observes the cooks in the kitchen. The refrigerator and the freezer are kept at appropriate temperatures for storing food. Food is stored in airtight, plastic containers. Nurse Hilary watches as the cook who is preparing the chicken for broiling is also in charge of prepping the plates that are going out to the customers. Upon cutting into a piece of chicken about to go out to the dining room, Nurse Hilary notes that the center looks pink and undercooked. Pieces of wilted lettuce are scattered on the countertops. During her 2-hour visit, the main chef washes his hands twice, although he leaves the kitchen four times for a smoking break.
1. How is the daycare center providing infectious disease control?
2. Describe the outbreak of diarrhea.
3. Which of the five keys to safer food does the restaurant not follow?