feedback process in which the output of a given system is returned to the system health dynamic state in which individuals adapt to their internal and external environments so there is a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual well-being domain the perspective of a profession that provides the subject, central concepts, values and beliefs, phenomena of interest, and central problems of a discipline paradigm a pattern of thought that is useful in describing the domain of a discipline. person the recipient of nursing care, including individual patients, groups, families, and communities nursing the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems theory designed to explain a phenomenon such as self-care or caring nursing theory a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing that describes, explains, predicts, or prescribes nursing care phenomenon the term, description, or label given to describe an idea or responses about an event, a situation, a process, a group of events, or a group of situations assumptions the “taken for granted” statements that explain the nature of the concepts, definitions, purpose, relationships, and structure of a theory grand theories theories that are systemic and broad in scope, complex, and therefore require further specification through research middle-range theories theories that are more limited in scope and less abstract. They address a specific phenomenon and reflect practice descriptive theories theories that are the first level of theory development. They explain, relate, and in some situations predict nursing phenomena prescriptive theories theories that address nursing interventions for a phenomenon, describe the conditions under which the prescription occurs, and predict the consequences interdisciplinary theory theory that explains a systematic view of a phenomenon specific to the discipline of inquiry feedback serves to inform a system about how it functions Leininger’s the main concept of __ theory is cultural diversity, and the goal of nursing care is to provide the patient with culturally specific care Neuman the __ systems model is based on stress and the client’s reaction to the stressor. The role of nursing is to stabilize the patient Nightingale theory goal is to facilitate the reparative processes of the body by manipulating the patient’s environment Peplau theory goal is to develop interaction between nurse and patient Henderson theory goal is to work independently with other health care workers, assisting patient in gaining independence as quickly as possible; help patient gain lacking strength Orem theory goal is to care for and help patient attain total self-care King theory goal is to use communication to help patient reestablish positive adaptation to environment Neuman theory goal is to help individuals, families, and groups attain and maintain maximal levels of total wellness by purposeful interventions Leininger theory goal is to provide care consistent with nursing’s emerging science and knowledge with caring as central focus Roy theory goal is to identify types of demands placed on patient, assess adaptation to demands, and help patient adapt Watson theory goal is to promote health, restore patient to health, and prevent illness Benner and Wrubel theory goal is to focus on patient’s need for caring as a means of coping with stressors of illness the person, health, environment/situation, and nursing components of the paradigm of nursing explain a phenomenon a theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that: Orem A patient with diabetes is controlling the disease wit insulin and diet. The nursing health care provider is focusing efforts to teach the patient self-management. What nursing theory is useful in promoting self management? describe or predict patient outcomes theory-based nursing practice uses a theoretical approach for nursing care. This approach moves nursing forward and a science. This suggests that theories will be tested to: interdisciplinary to practice in today’s health care environment, nurses need a strong scientific knowledge base from nursing and other disciplines such as the physical, social, and behavioral sciences. This statement identifies the need for which theory? developmental __ theories describe the life processes of an older adult facing chronic illness nursing and related sciences, standards of practice a nurse is applying Henderson’s theory as basis for theory based-nursing practice. What elements are important for theory-based nursing practice? theory-generating __ research identifies observations or describes a phenomena. It contributes to the scientific knowledge base of nursing. prescriptive __ theories address specific nursing interventions and predict the patient response experimental and nonexperimental research and research from other disciplines as an art nursing relies on knowledge gained from practice and reflection on past experiences. As a science nursing relies on.